Immunization is one of the maximum useful and cost-effective disease prevention measures. Successes of immunization include the worldwide eradication of smallpox, control of poliomyelitis with hopes of eradication, and removal of measles and rubella. Even though childhood immunization programs have been very successful, Adult Immunization is an overlooked and underpublicized issue in India. Adult Vaccination is also needed to enhance the efficacy of childhood vaccines, aid immunity for newer comorbidities and afford protection when immunity is suppressed due to acquired illnesses.
At Aashwas Chest & Allergy Clinic we have Immunotherapy Clinic and specialist for handle all type of Adult Vaccination.
Types of Adult Vaccination
Adult Influenza Vaccination
Trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) and live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) are one of the important parts of Adult Vaccination. The TIV is administered by an annual, single intramuscular dose of 0.5 ml. The LAIV is administered by the intranasal route. The vaccine is contraindicated for persons who had a severe reaction to the initial dose and for persons having egg allergy.
Adult DIPHTHERIA, TETANUS, (TD) AND ACELLULAR PERTUSSIS 31 (TDAP) VACCINE
After completion of their Primary vaccination series, adults should receive a TD vaccine every 10 years till the age of 65 years. 1 dose of Tdap vaccine may be administered in place of Td vaccine at any time.
MEASLES MUMPS AND RUBELLA vaccine for Adults
All adults should receive two doses of MMR vaccine or one dose of measles followed by a dose of MMR, administered at least 4 weeks after the first dose. Since it is a live vaccine, it is contraindicated in pregnant women and the immunosuppressed.
Adult VARICELLA VACCINE (Chicken Pox Vaccine for Adults)
All adults without evidence of immunity to varicella or previous infection should receive 2 doses of single-antigen varicella vaccine or the second dose if they have received only one dose. The minimum interval between first and the second doses should be 4 weeks. Varicella vaccine is contraindicated in pregnant women and those with a compromised immune system.
HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS (HPV) VACCINE
Two HPV vaccines are commercially available. These include a quadrivalent (HPV4) vaccine containing the HPV virus L1 protein like particles of HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 and a bivalent (HPV2) vaccine containing L1 VLPs of HPV 16, 18. HPV vaccination is recommended at age 11 or 12 years with catch up vaccination at ages 13 through 26 years. Ideally, the vaccine should be administered before potential exposure to HPV through sexual activity.
PNEUMOCOCCAL VACCINATION (Pneumonia Vaccine)
There are two types of pneumococcal vaccine, a conjugate vaccine containing 13 serotypes and a polysaccharide vaccine containing 23 serotypes. A combination of these two serially is recommended in adults with certain comorbidities.
HEPATITIS A (HEPA) VACCINE
Vaccines available for immunization against hepatitis A virus (HAV) include inactivated vaccines such as single antigen (HAV antigen) vaccines, or combination vaccines containing both HAV and HBV antigens. Vaccination is advised for persons with any of the following indications and any person seeking protection from hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection.
- Persons with the chronic liver disease.
- Men who have sex with men and persons who use illegal drugs.
- Persons infected with another hepatitis virus.
- Persons who receive clotting factor concentrates.
- Persons who have received, or are awaiting a liver transplant.
- Food Handlers.
HEPATITIS B (HEPB) VACCINE
The hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine is available as a single antigen recombinant vaccine or combination with hepatitis A vaccine. Currently, it is advised for all adults in India. Administer a 3-dose series of HepB to those persons not previously vaccinated. The second dose should be administered one month after the first dose; the third dose should be administered at least two months after the second dose (and at least four months after the first dose). If the combined hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccine is used, administer 3 doses at 0, 1, and 6 months; alternatively, a 4-dose schedule, administered on days 0, 7, and 21 to 30 followed by a booster dose at month 12 may be used. Adult patients receiving hemodialysis or with other immunocompromised conditions should receive 1 dose of 40 μg/mL administered on a 3-dose schedule or 2 doses of 20 μg/mL administered simultaneously on a 4-dose schedule at 0, 1, 2 and 6 months.
Two types of vaccines are in use for meningococcal meningitis (i) the polysaccharide vaccines and (ii) conjugate vaccines. Bivalent (A+C) and quadrivalent (A,C,Y,W135) vaccines are available. Meningococcal vaccine should be administered to persons with the following indications.
- Adults with anatomic or functional asplenia, or complement component deficiencies.
- First-year college students living in dormitories.
- Microbiologists routinely exposed to isolates of Neisseria meningitides.
- Military recruits.
- Persons who travel to or live in countries where the disease is hyperendemic or epidemic (sub-Saharan Africa).
- All travelers to Mecca during the annual Hajj.
- During an outbreak given to health care workers, laboratory workers and close contacts of cases.